Struggle

Persian, Creek, Roman and Arabs Invasion, occupation and plundering of Chimie

Persian Invasion of Chimie (Egypt)


In 525 BC the Persian emperor Cambyses II, son of Cyrus the Great, who had already named his son as king of Babylon though Cambyses II resigned that position after only one year, invaded Egypt and successfully overthrew the native Egyptian pharaoh, Psamtek III, last ruler of Egypt's 26th Dynasty to become the first ruler of Egypt's 27th Persian Dynasty. His father had earlier attempted an invasion of Egypt against Psamtek III's predecessor, Amasis, but Cyrus' death in 529 BC put a halt to that expedition. 

After capturing Egypt, Cambyses took the Throne name Mesut-i-re (Mesuti-Ra), meaning "Offspring of Re". Though the Persians would rule Egypt for the next 193 years until Alexander the Great defeated Darius III and conquered Egypt in 332 BC, Cambyses II's victory would bring to an end (for the most part) Egyptians truly ruling Egyptians until the mid 20th century, when Egypt finally shrugged off colonial rule. 

 Very little is known about Cambyses II through contemporary texts, but his reputation as a mad tyrannical despot has come down to us in the writings of the Greek historian Herodotus (440 BC) and a Jewish document from 407 BC known as 'The Demotic Chronicle' which speaks of the Persian king destroying all the temples of the Egyptian gods. However, it must be repeatedly noted that the Greeks shared no love for the Persians. Herodotus informs us that Cambyses II was a monster of cruelty and impiety.

 

Greek Invasion of Chimie

In the 4th century the Persians were displaced in Egypt by the Greeks under Alexander, who built the city of Alexandria on the Nile Delta, to serve as a entry port for the Greeks who came sailing across the Mediterranean.

Even the Greek rule of the Ptolemys next three centuries did not interfere with the religious beliefs of the Egyptians. They continued worshipping their age-old deities, the Sun God, Ra or Amon Ra, Horus, the sky god, who had the head of a hawk, and body of a human and many others.

Roman invasion of Chimie

 In the 1st century C.E. despite the efforts of Greco-Egyptian rulers like Cleopatra, Egypt became part of the Roman Empire under Julius Ceaser. But even the Romans did not tamper with the religious beliefs of the Egyptians.

So after a procession of invaders the Persians, Greeks, Romans, the religion of the Egyptians remained unique and original. Only when the Roman emperor Constantine embraced Christianity in the 4th century did the people of Egypt as subjects of the Roman empire start converting to Christianity.

 

The Arabs invasion of Chimie

The four centuries of ceaseless warfare between the Byzantine (Eastern-Roman) Empire and the Sassanid Persian Empire in the 6th and 7th centuries had weakened both empires. It was at this unfortunate juncture that the Muslim Arabs pounced on both empires in fourth decade of the 7th Century (641 C.E.). After their conquest of the Byzantine provinces of Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine (today's Israel), they invaded Egypt in December 641 C.E. 

When the Arab Muslims invaded Egypt, the native Egyptian population was fully Christian, although the ancient religion has influenced Egyptian Christianity and many of the original rituals were being followed by the Egyptians. Under the Arab Muslims occupation, the Coptic Christians were subject to fierce persecution, and many of the churches and Basilicas were destroyed and converted into Mosques. Egypt's Coptic Christians had to retreat to the hilly and barren areas to remain safe from being converted to Islam at the pain of death by their Arab Muslim tormentors.